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Adolescent Immunization Resource Guide


Vaccination rates for some adolescent vaccines remain below Healthy People 2020 goals, leaving millions of adolescents vulnerable to serious health risks.

The AIM Adolescent Immunization Resource Guide offers a selection of activities and strategies to enhance and improve the delivery of vaccinations throughout adolescence, from middle school to college. Each of the nine chapters offer a menu of adolescent-focused strategies that Immunization Programs can adopt, adapt, or use as inspiration in planning or brainstorming exercises. Recognizing that Immunization Programs vary substantially in the resources available for adolescent immunization efforts and in their public health infrastructure, the Resource Guide offers activities at three levels: 


The Adolescent Immunization Resource Guide will be released chapter by chapter. Check the AIM website frequently for the latest updates


Immunization Programs are involved in a wide range of efforts to reach teens in schools, such as making school coverage reports more accessible, targeting high school athletes, engaging with school-based health centers, and conducting school-located immunization clinics. The activities highlighted here related to targeting teens in school are:

Getting Started: Updating vaccine language on high school sports physical form (Minnesota)

Moving Forward
: Helping schools fulfill state recordkeeping and reporting requirements (Alabama)

Taking It to the Next Level: Immunizing students in school-located clinics during school hours (Rhode Island)




Immunization Programs are involved in a wide range of efforts to reach teens directly, such as utilizing social media, conducting contests to create outreach materials, and crafting messaging that resonates with specific adolescent populations. The activities highlighted here related to targeting teens directly are:

Getting Started: Supporting HPV campaigns developed with input from and targeting at-risk subpopulations (Washington State)

Moving Forward: Enhancing the Protect Me With 3+ Campaign (New Jersey)

Taking It to the Next Level
: #UDontGetIt Campaign (Pennslyvania)



Immunization Programs across the country work to actively engage stakeholders in adolescent immunization campaigns, such as supporting immunization coalition-led projects to increase coverage rates, establishing relationships with new partners involved in adolescent immunization (eg, cancer prevention programs), and forming groups with multiple internal and external partners to share ideas and collaborate on adolescent immunization activities. The activities highlighted here related to engaging stakeholders are:

Getting Started: Managing overlapping stakeholder initiatives (Michigan)

Moving Forward: Establishing a statewide workgroup to address adolescent immunization (Montana)

Taking It to the Next Level: Building on jurisdiction-specifIc connections through an HPV stakeholder group (Alaska)



Immunization programs play an important role in helping providers stay up to speed on vaccines needed for adolescent patients, by conducting quality improvement exercises like AFIX and highlighting teens in the provider practice who may not be fully vaccinated. The following activities serve as examples of ways to inform and educate providers:

The activities highlighted here related to engaging stakeholders are:

Getting Started: Establishing a Statewide Immunization Conference (Kentucky)

Moving Forward: “We Are the Key to Cancer Prevention” HPV Vaccination Campaign (West Virginia)

Taking It to the Next Level: “Just Another Shot: Reframing the HPV Vaccine” Videos for Providers (Minnesota)



In addition to implementing ACIP recommendations, Immunization Programs must also implement state/local/territorial vaccination requirements. Many of the requirements are based around entry into childcare, elementary school, middle school or college, as well as participation in certain extracurricular activities like sports teams or clubs.

The activities highlighted in this chapter relate to implementation of recommendations and requirements:

Getting Started: Getting a jump start on new or revised ACIP vaccine recommendations (North Dakota)

Moving Forward: Implementing a new school requirement for meningococcal conjugate vaccine (New York State)

Taking It to the Next Level: Updating VFC policy and school requirements for meningococcal B vaccine (Indiana)




Even though parents are working hard to keep their children healthy, some parents are unaware of the importance of adolescent immunizations. Twenty-three percent of parents
surveyed said they believe vaccines are for babies, and not as important for teenagers.  Therefore, it is important for immunization programs to conduct outreach initiatives to the
public to increase awareness for adolescent vaccines, as well as targeted messaging on specific vaccines such as HPV.

The activities highlighted in this chapter relate to engaging parents:

Getting Started: Protect Their Future poster (Georgia)

Moving Forward: HPV public awareness campaign (Massachusetts)

Taking It to the Next Level: Adolescent vaccine public awareness campaign (Texas)




Immunization information systems (IIS) are computerized databases that record immunization doses administered by participating providers to people residing within a specific jurisdiction. The IIS can be a powerful tool to track and analyze patterns in immunization rates, identify missed opportunities to vaccinate, and identify underserved populations —all with the ultimate goal of increasing immunization rates.

The activities highlighted in this chapter relate to utilizing IIS:

Getting Started: Centralized, local health department-based adolescent recall (Illinois)

Moving Forward: Quarterly adolescent immunization recall (North Dakota)

Taking It to the Next Level: Development of IIS-based text message recall functionality
(New York City)




The number of pharmacies providing immunizations to adults has been increasing since the 1990s, and as of 2019 all 50 states allow pharmacists to administer vaccines to adults. Pharmacies are familiar, convenient, and accessible immunization venues for adults, and have the potential for expanding immunization access to children and adolescents. State laws vary in age and other restrictions regarding administration of vaccines to children and adolescents.

The activities highlighted in this chapter relate to pharmacies:

Getting Started: Piloting expansion of VFC enrollment to pharmacies (Michigan)

Moving Forward: Enrolling pharmacies in the VFC program (Nevada)

Taking It to the Next Level: Evaluating impact of a new pharmacist vaccination law (Oregon)


  This Resource Guide was made possible through support from Sanofi Pasteur

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